Week 10 – Lecture 10

Scientific method.
This applies to the positivist research paradigm.

Using this method it is essential that you start from the existing theories. Scientific methods require a hypothesis; you cannot conduct research without one. Exploration is inductive (Qualitative) not deductive (Quantitative). Independent variable is the cause and dependent variable is the effect.


Measures respondent opinions, attitudes or preferences using a series of carefully designed questions. Your questions should seek answers that are numerical eg. Pick a category, rank the following, indicate your answer on a scale etc. You may select a questionnaire if you want to collect data that can be generalised to a wider population.


Measure participant cognitive response to stimuli you present them with. Measure participant ability under certain circumstances.

Grounded Theory.


Level 1 coding – Large amounts of raw data are focused and labelled

Level 2 coding – Re-examines level 1 codes and further focuses the data

Level 3 coding – Previous coding is studied to develop highly refined themes

Level 4 – Theories can emerge from saturated categories and themes.

Elicitation – John Crosser

Use case studies everyday. With reflective writing.


A key characteristic of qualitative research is immersion. In this case the researcher must remain distant. The researcher ought to be immersed or involved in the study in some way.

Back up all your work. Always remember your project aim and objectives to be sure that everything can be related back.


Qualitative researchers are interested in themes. You don’t know what themes you will encounter beforehand.

Empirical evidence.
Sweeping statements that need evidence to back them up.


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